No good or bad and no benefit or harm happen to a person except with Allah’s Will and Predestination. Testifying and believing in this is one of the pillars of faith, and without it the faith will not be valid.
There is no contradiction between luck and the belief in Allah’s Decree and Predestination. The person’s luck or portion in something is predestined by Allah. However, believing that a lucky person could achieve what Allah did not prescribe for him, or that only his luck can bring him benefits and repel from him harms, this is something rejected by the Glorious Qur’an, Sunnah, reason and reality.
It is authentically reported that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “O Allah! None can prevent what You have willed to bestow, and none can bestow what You have willed to prevent, and no wealth or majesty can benefit anyone, as from You is all wealth and majesty.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Prayer and Pre-destination
It is wrong to say that Allah does not accept our supplication, because accepting the supplication does not necessarily mean that a person should be given exactly what he supplicated for. Rather, one’s supplication may be answered, or an affliction is driven away from him because of his supplication and this will be better for him than what he asked for, or that Allah reserves the reward for him in the Hereafter as stated in a Hadith from the Prophet (peace be upon him).
As far discrimination between people, then this is evident; however, Allah does this out of knowledge and wisdom and not out of ignorance and injustice. There is absolutely perfect wisdom in Him doing so; Allah Almighty says:
Look how We have favored [in provision] some of them over others. But the Hereafter is greater in degrees [of difference] and greater in distinction. (Al-Isra’ 17:21)
Allah Almighty also says:
And have raised some of them above others in degrees [of rank] that they may make use of one another for service. But the mercy of your Lord is better than whatever they accumulate. (Az-Zukhruf 43:32)
In fact, poverty may be for some people better than richness, and richness is better for some others, in the same way health is more beneficial for some. It is reported in a Hadith Qudusi (there is a controversy about its authenticity), “Among My Slaves there are those for whom nothing is better than richness, and if I were to impoverish them, they would be corrupted. And among My Slaves there are those for whom nothing is better than poverty, and if I were to make them rich, they would be corrupted. I manage (the affairs of) My Slaves, I am indeed the All-Aware of their circumstances.”
You should know that real happiness is not by obtaining some money and other temporary worldly pleasures. Rather, the real happiness is in faith and acts of good deeds. Allah says:
Whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he is a believer— We will surely cause him to live a good life, and We will surely give them their reward [in the Hereafter] according to the best of what they used to do. (An-Nahl 16:97)
Finally, it should be noted that there are some etiquettes that must be observed when supplicating and there are some matters that prevent the supplication from being accepted.
Submission to the Predestination
Submission to Allah in regard to His Predestination is something required in Islamic faith. If Allah decrees something, there is no one who can overturn His Decree, and if He rules, there is no one who can overturn His Rule. Allah says:
And Allah decides; there is no adjuster of His decision. And He is swift in account. (Ar-R`ad 13:41)
This submission is even more required in regard to matters of the unseen, among which is Predestination, which is the hidden secret. At-Tahawi said in his book entitled Al-`Aqidah At-Tahawiyyah: “The essence of Predestination is the Secret of Allah in His creation which neither a close angel nor a Prophet knows.”
Allah does not do anything except for wisdom; some people might know it and some others might not know it. However, asking about the wisdom in order to reassure one’s heart is acceptable, but asking a question as a way of objection is not permissible, as this is the approach of the devil. Allah says about him:
And [mention] when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate to Adam,” and they prostrated, except for Iblees. He said, “Should I prostrate to one You created from clay?” (Al-Isra’ 17:61).
Is Predestination an Excuse for sinning?
Scholars stated that it is permissible to argue that Predestination is the reason for the calamities that befall a person but not for the sins that he commits.” Ibn Taymiyyah said: “One may give Predestination as an excuse for calamities but not for sins.”
Everything is predestined is something determined in the texts of the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him). However, it is not acceptable to use Predestination as an excuse for committing sins as we have already clarified in the first point. So, this is our answer to those who say: “What is my fault if this is predestined for me?”
In matters of religion, if one fails to perform an obligation due to laziness, then he is held accountable for that. The congregational prayer is an obligation according to the preponderant view of the scholars and if one fails to perform it without a valid reason, one is sinful.
No sane person would see the fire coming to consume him and he waits for it with the pretext of destiny. Of course, a sane person in this case would not wait but will struggle to run away.
For those who want to rely on Predestination, they are advised to work and do their effort. ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “There is no one amongst you except that his place in Hellfire is written and his place in Paradise is written.” The Companions asked: “Shall we not rely on our book (i.e. Predestination) and not act? He said: “Rather, you should act, as every person is facilitated for what he was created for…..” Ibn Hajar said: “It means that you should be preoccupied with acts of worship, and what you were created for and ordered to do. Then, you should let the matter of the unseen which only Allah knows to its Owner (i.e. Allah), you do not have to do anything about it. This is the summary of the statement of At-Tibi.”
We have not seen anybody leaving his worldly benefits because of relying on Predestination, while some people abandon the means of guidance out of relying on this, and this is contradictory.
Ibn Taymiyyah said in his book entitled Minhaj As-Sunnah: “Using Predestination as an excuse (for committing sins and leaving religious obligations) is unfounded according to the agreement of the Muslim scholars and wise people. The person who uses it as an excuse when committing evils and wrongdoings is someone who contradicts himself and follows his desires. A scholar said, “In matters regarding obedience, they say that they have a choice, but in case of acts of disobedience, they you say that they are forced. They only follow that which corresponds to their desires.”
Source: Taken from www.islamweb.net with modifications.
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