Between Hinduism and Islam: Creation of Matter and Soul
Some Hindu writers claim that creation from nothing is impossible. Therefore, they see that the matter is eternal, and the soul is also eternal. Thus, there are three eternals according to them: God, soul and matter. The three are uncreated, however, God created and creates everything from the matter. In this regard, Dayanand Saraswati (1824-1883) says:
Q. Has not God made Nature or Prakriti?
- No, it is unbeginning.
Q What do you mean by unbeginning? How many objects are unbeginning?
- God, soul, and the cause of the world \ matter. These three are unbeginning.
- What, is the proof of it? (1)
Dayananda Saraswati’s Opinion
Dayanand Saraswati adds:
God is distinct from the soul, and nature (matter or prakriti) is distinct from both God & the soul. But all the three are eternal and unbeginning. In other words, God has instructed His unbeginning and eternal spiritual children, the souls, all departments of knowledge through the revelation of the Vedas. (2)
- Cannot God make any object without a cause?
- No; for, it is impossible to bring into being what has no being.
It is like the talk of the man who says that he has seen the marriages of the son and daughter of a barren woman. They had a bow of human horns, and both wore garlands of flowers that blossom in the sky. They bathed in the lake of mirage (an optical illusion) and lived in the city of illusion. There they have rain without clouds, harvests of corn without the cultivation of land, and other impossible things. Thus, there can be no effect without a cause. (3)
- Is or is not there a beginning of the world?
- No, there is none. Just as day is preceded by night, and night is preceded by day, or day is followed by night and night, is followed by day, that is to sav, the succession of light and darkness is constant ever since time began; so is creation preceded by destruction, destruction is preceded by creation, or creation is followed by destruction and destruction is followed by creation, that is to say, the rhythmic cycle of the world proceeds with regularity and constancy from all eternity. There is neither beginning nor end of it. (4)
These are quotations from sporadic places in which Dayanand discusses the subject of matter, soul, God and the subject of creation from nothingness. He believes that matter and soul are uncreated.
The Soul and Matter in Islam
On the other hand, according to Islam, God alone is the eternal and others; the matter, its derivatives, the soul and bodies are all creations of Allah the Almighty. Allah has created them from mere nothingness. The Glorious Qur’an says: “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names.” (Al-Hashr59:24) In another verse, Allah the Almighty says: ” Say, ” Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Prevailing.” (Ar-Ra`ad13:16)
This verse confirms that Allah the Almighty is the Creator alone and all other beings, including matter and spirit are creations. And He is the Master of everything, and nothing is beyond His grip and control. In addition, this is the unanimous faith and doctrine of Muslims.
Philosophical Objections to Hindu Philosophy
First, I doubt that this issue: “the soul and matter are eternal and not created” is the doctrine of all Hindus. There is also a question: Is this philosophy based directly on the sacred texts in Hinduism or is it merely an extraction, conclusion, deduction or inference of some Hindu thinkers?
Second: One of the most famous defenders of this philosophy in the modern era is: Dayananda Saraswati (1824-1883) and Pandit Lekh Ram (1858-1897).
Third: If we assume that the soul and matter are absolute, independent, eternal and uncreated, there is no justification for their entrance into God’s control, because creation is a cause of ownership and control.
Fourth: This philosophy leads to polytheism and joins partners with God in the independent existence; as God is independent in His existence and the soul is independent in its existence and the matter is independent in its existence too. According to this philosophy there will be three partners in the existence since the eternity and of course this is incompatible with the monotheism claimed by Ara Samaj that defends monotheism and never accepts polytheism.
Fifth: This philosophy leads to ascribe injustice to God, because if God did not create the soul and matter, there is no justification to own them or control them, but such ownership without right is a sort of seize or grab which is pure injustice while God is away from injustice.
Sixth: This philosophy also leads to assume that God is like a person or like human being who needs raw materials when he wants to make something or manufacture any product, but God is not like human and He has no need for anything. Unquestionably, Allah’s is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah, Lord of the worlds.
Seventh: in addition, this philosophy leads to incapability in God as He did not create the soul and matter, while incapability is contrary to the greatness of God.
Eighth: Another question rises on this philosophy: if God created everything in the universe and nothing is beyond His creation, then why are the soul and matter exception from the creation of God?
Ninth: The universe has two types things; spiritual and material. If the basics and essences of the things are uncreated, then what is the need of Creator in their derivatives?
Tenth: If we suppose that God does not exist, then what is the impact on the existence of soul and matter? Nothing, because the soul and matter are independent in their existence and there is no need for them to God. But this is conclusion is the claim of the atheists who deny the existence of God. Does Arya Samaj accept the denial of God?
(1) An English translation of the Satyarth Prakash, by Swami Dayananda Sarasvati, Lahore: Virganand Press 1908, P. 236.
(3) An English translation of the Satyarth Prakash, by Swami Dayananda Sarasvati, Lahore: Virganand Press 1908, p.241.
(4) Satyarth Prakash, p.249.
यह लेख उन सभी आर्यसमाजियों के लिए एक चुनौती है, जिनके पास दर्शन और वेद का ज्ञान है कि वे इन दार्शनिक सवालों के जवाब देने का कष्ट करें। इस्लाम पर आपत्ति करने वाले कई हैं, लेकिन आपत्ति आसान है पर उसका उत्तर देना बड़ा काम है। ये आपके दर्शन और आपके धर्म पर आपत्ति हैं और अब आपको इस चुनौती का तर्क के साथ जवाब देना ज़रूरी है । पंडित महेंद्र पाल आर्य, पुष्पेंद्र कुलश्रेष्ठ, संदीप आर्य को खासकर चुनौती है । कृपया इन सवालों का जवाब दें और अन्य विषयों पर चर्चा न करें ।